You specialize in prenatal care and Mary, one of your patients, just discovered she is pregnant. She’s very curious about how the sex of her baby will be determined. Discuss with Mary the neuroendocrine system’s involvement with sexual development.
After posting your response to discussion question one, review a classmate’s response and play the role of Mary.
Post a message asking the classmate a question about their description. Then, choose a question written by a classmate and answer it.
In the early stages of the fetus’s development both male and female characteristics are present. There is no way to tell the difference until about 6 weeks after conception. At this time depending on if the Y or X chromosome is present or not the fetus will be a boy or girl. This is dependent on the Y chromosome; if it is not present and the X chromosome is present then the fetus will be a female. If the Y chromosome is present and not the X chromosome then the fetus will be male. If the Y chromosome is present then the sry gene will trigger the synthesis of the sry protein that will turn the gonads into testes. Without the Y chromosome the gonads will turn into ovaries because the sry gene will not trigger the synthesis of the sry protein.
The endocrine system consist of endocrine glands and hormones they secret either directly into the blood stream or lymph system. Hormones are carried throughout the body and are used to regulate body’s growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. The pituitary gland which is also called the master gland, influences other glands and influences growth and lactation. The adrenal glands secrete hormones that arouse the body and help with adjustment to stress, regulate salt balance, and affect sexual functioning. Hormones influence sex in two fundamentally different ways; by influencing the development from conception to sexual maturity of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as female or male and by activating the reproduction related behavior of sexually matured adults. Sexual differentiation begins at fertilization with the production of one or two different kinds of zygotes. It is the genetic info on the sex chromosomes that normally determines whether development will occur along female or male lines.
The Neuroendocrine System is the system of sexual development and behavior. The sex of a child is determined by a fathers sperm cells. What matters is the X sex chromosome or the Y sex chromosome getting to the woman ovum first. So if it was X sex chromosome the baby will be a female and if it was a y sex chromosome the baby will be a male. Once 6 weeks of conception has been reached gonads of XX and XY are identical. XX being female and XY being male reproductive ducts. Male reproductive ducts store fluid of sperm cells that can be ejaculated, female reproductive ducts has ovaries that travel to the uterus where the can be fertilized. Overall both male and female both start out the same way and only change over time because of their sex chromosome.
What I want to know is how often do people have both X and Y sex chromosomes? I have heard stories of this happening over the years. Some people were deeply effected not knowing what sexual orientation they most feel like. Others in disbelief in how something like this can happen but it does, not often but it happens sometimes to both male and female.
The neuroendocrine system plays a large part in sexual
development. Basically the baby’s sex will be determined by glands and
hormones. The body has two different types of glands. One type, the
Exocrine glands, carry chemicals through ducts. Most of these glands are
on the outside of the body. The other type of glands, Endocrine glands
release chemicals known as hormones directly to the circulatory system.
These hormones play a major role in the development of sexual organs. A
baby’s sex is determined at fertilization. When a sperm and an egg meet
you get either an XX pair which is female or an XY pair which is male. By
6 weeks in age a fetus has the parts of both a male and a female. After 6
weeks is when the hormones that control sexual development begin to kick
in. If a male child is to develop the Y chromosome starts making the H-Y
antigen. This antigen allows testes to develop. In females there is
no antigen. Around 12 weeks of development in males the testes begin to
release testosterone and mullerian-inhibiting substance. The testosterone
helps to develop the male sexual organs while the mullerian-inhibiting
substance eliminates the female sexual organs. If no testosterone is
present then the female sexual organs are able to develop.
Mary we all started out having both male and female characteristics. Then after six weeks of conception the fetus will begin to take on the characteristics of their determined sex. The fetal endocrine system develops very early on after conception at about four weeks. This system helps the fetal development of the anatomical sex of the fetus. It also helps to develop the physiological and behavioral characteristics of that sex. The anatomic sex of the baby is decided by the X or Y chromosome. If the Y chromosome’s is present then your child will be anatomically male. The anatomic sex is determined by the father, these chromosomes are produced in the male gonads.